The transition to “green energy” in the world: activities and plans of Azerbaijan

In recent years, the energy transition has been one of the main trends in global energy policy.

The report informs that the energy transition includes replacing traditional energy resources with renewable ones using the latest technologies. The rapid development of renewable energy technologies and specific climate targets for countries are accelerating the transition to green energy.

Despite the negative effects of the COVID-19 crisis, in 2020, renewable energy plants with a total capacity of more than 260 GW, which is approx fifty% beats the 2019 record.

From the report of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) it follows more 80% From the new electricity generation capacity introduced last year from renewable energy, of which 91% Solar and wind energy. In general, according to the results of last year, the capacity of renewable energy sources in the world has reached 2799 gigawatts, which is equal to one third of the total capacity of the world. Despite the rapid development of solar and wind energy, hydropower still holds the largest share (capacity 1111 GW).

In 2020, new solar and wind power plants with a capacity 127 GW and 111 GW straight. Energy produced from renewable energy sources is 29% of total production.

A related report from the World Economic Forum indicates that if 10 years ago the production of solar and wind energy was not economically competitive with conventional production, and the capacity of solar and wind power plants was 70 GW and 238 GW, then in 2020 this number is equal to 714 GW and 733 GW straight.

There are many factors in the world that are accelerating the transition to environmentally friendly “green energy”, one of which is the development of technologies and their cost reduction. Between 2010 and 2019, the cost per kilowatt-hour of electricity from industrial-scale solar power plants decreased by 82%, the cost of energy generated by wind farms – by 29%. Another factor driving prices down is the widespread use of renewable energy trade around the world, and this mechanism leads to the development of the use of “green energy” through private investment. Overall, global investment in energy transition grew by about 500 billion in 2020, while in 2011 it was less than 300 billion US dollars annually. Investment in renewable energy will continue to grow in 2021, according to a report from the International Energy Agency.

According to many international organizations, the expansion of the use of renewable energy sources is one of the important pillars of the energy transition, and its development must be accelerated. A higher share of renewables in the energy mix, in addition to diversifying the economy, can bring many other benefits. Expanding the use of clean energy sources around the world also contributes to fulfilling the commitments made under the Paris Agreement. At the same time, according to the International Renewable Energy Agency, last year more than 11.5 million people around the world.

Azerbaijan has a wide potential for developing the use of renewable energy sources. Currently, our capabilities are estimated at 27000 MW. Among these, the potential of wind energy 3000 megawatts, solar – 23000 megawatts, bioenergy – 380 MW, mountain rivers – 520 MW.

In different regions of our republic, wind power plants with a total capacity 66 megawatts, solar – 40 megawatts, bioenergy – 38 megawatts, as well as small hydroelectric power stations with a capacity 32 MW. The total electricity generation in the Republic in the year 2020 AD 25.8 One billion kilowatt-hours of it 1.3 1 billion kilowatt-hours from renewable energy sources, including large hydropower plants.

Given that the expansion of the use of renewable energy sources was put forward by President Ilham Aliyev as a priority task and goals were set to bring the share of electricity in installed capacity to thirty% (Currently 17%) by 2030, a lot of work is being done in this direction. The first regulatory document in this field was the draft law on the use of renewable energy sources in electricity generation, which was adopted by the Azerbaijani Milli Majlis in the third reading after appropriate actions on May 31, 2021. The law provides for mechanisms aimed at attracting private investments, including foreign, in Industry development, including the organization of auctions in the field of renewable energy. In this direction, with the support of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the project “Support for Auctions on Renewable Energy Resources in Azerbaijan” is being implemented. Auction rules have been developed and are being prepared within the framework of the project.

Besides, pilot projects related to the construction of a wind farm with a capacity . have been implemented 240 MW and capacity of the solar power plant 230 MW, with ACWA Power (Saudi Arabia) and Masdar (UAE). In this direction, the “Investment Agreement”, the “Power Purchase and Sale Agreement” and the “Transmission Network Connection Agreement” were signed with the companies. These stations have a total capacity 470 It is planned that MW will be built by foreign direct investment in the amount of about 500 million US dollars.

An executive agreement was signed with British Petroleum to cooperate in the evaluation and implementation of a project to construct a solar power plant with a capacity of 240 megawatts in the Zanjilan – Jibril region.

At the same time, with the support of the Asian Development Bank, the project “Exchange of knowledge and technical assistance in the development of floating solar panels” is being implemented. In the framework of this project, for the first time in Azerbaijan, it is planned to install an experimental floating photovoltaic system with a capacity a hundred kilowatt.

Given that “Azerbaijan 2030: National Priorities for Social and Economic Development”, approved by the relevant decree of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan of February 2, 2021, defines Azerbaijan as “a country of clean environment and green growth”, it can and should be noted that in In the coming period, interest in using renewable energy sources will be further enhanced. In line with the priority sub-goal “green energy space”, the use of electric vehicles and energy efficiency will also remain in the spotlight.

In the construction work carried out in the liberated lands, preference is given to green energy projects. In these areas, the potential of solar energy exceeds 4000 megawatts, wind power up 500 MW. At the same time, a 25% of water resources in Azerbaijan. The Tartarchay, Khyakari and other smaller rivers have great energy potential.

Other important power facilities in the region are the Khudafarin and Gyz Galasy hydroelectric power facilities. Construction of Khudafarin hydroelectric power stations with a capacity 200 MW capacity and “Gyz Galasy” 80 MW is planned to be completed within 2-2.5 years.

At present, in order to develop the concept and master plan of the “green energy zone” in the liberated lands, an agreement has been signed with the Japanese company Tepsco, which is specialized in this field. Currently, work is underway in this direction.

Leave a Comment