The green revolution will end shareholder capitalism

The session “Carbon Regulation: Challenges and Opportunities for Technological Development”, held at the Young Scientists Conference in Sochi, promised to become an important event only for narrow professionals of the industry. But it turns out that issues of social progress, education, and lifestyle change matter to speakers no less than the dry facts and numbers of scientific reports.

The session was opened by Andrei Fursenko, Assistant to the President of the Russian Federation. In his opinion, there are scientists who find the problems of global warming greatly exaggerated. “However, I think the professional community agrees that there is a warming, and that greenhouse gases play an important role in that,” the expert said. – But so far there are no models that are 100% suitable for how a steady increase in the proportion of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere occurs and for what reasons. Their number can be accurately measured. There are 26 points in the world that are monitored, four of them are on the territory of the Russian Federation, and this number is quite enough. ”

Andrey Fursenko believes that before engaging in carbon regulation, it is essential to have reliable data on how greenhouse gases are emitted and sequestered. “There are instructions from the president to create a federal scientific and technical program that will create a reliable system for monitoring and forecasting the level of greenhouse gases and will be recognized in the world,” he said. “This system will be the basis for the social and economic models that will allow us to move to issues of carbon regulation.”

Skolkovo Irina Gaida, director of the Energy Center at the Moscow School of Management, agrees with Andrei Fursenko that it is necessary to increase the amount of research and development in the field of decarbonization. “Now there is a movement towards low-carbon human development. This is the biggest change in the way of life of the nineteenth century. New business and ideas are emerging in all areas of activity.” She identified three main areas of decarbonization: First, everyone is turning to resources Renewable energy and storage, the second is hydrogen, and the third is pumping captured carbon dioxide into underground complexes or storage facilities.But in its pure form, none of these areas can be implemented.

Mikhail Neniukov, Vice Chairman, COO of Rosnano Management Company, suggested that Russia has a chance to become the leading producer of hydrogen, “green” and all other possible colors. “We have all the basic business for that, for example, the gas transportation infrastructure has been developed very seriously,” the expert is sure. – It is clear that serious technological changes will be required to use the main gas pipelines. But the technologies that were used to build Nord Stream will even allow us to transport potential hydrogen for export through it.”

Coal, which environmentalists consider the “dirtiest” fuel, can become “environmentally friendly,” said Viktor Fedotenko, a senior researcher at the Institute for Comprehensive Development Problems of the Soil Bed of the Russian Academy of Sciences. This problem can be solved if coal mining moves to a new technological level and a new way of life. On the sidelines of the conference, we often turn to the question of nature-like technologies. Therefore, in nature there is no division into products and waste. The essence of the new technological system is that all the materials and energy present in the developed subsoil should be considered as a single geographical resource, used to the maximum and therefore indefinitely. Which, in fact, will form the basis of sustainable development in the twenty-first century, ”believes Viktor Fedotenko.

Mikhail Varvolomyev, head of the priority direction “Environmental oil – energy and world resources of future materials” at the Kazan Federal University (Volga Region) also addressed the problem of full use of the subsoil. “Oil and gas infrastructure built over decades, thousands of wells being pulled out of the existing fund, can be given a second life and hydrogen can be produced with their help. It will be produced in combination with hydrocarbons, and what the president talked about will become possible – gas supplies to Europe with the addition of hydrogen. Russia can become a leader in introducing its production technologies in a completely new way ”, emphasizes Mikhail Varvolomev.

Yuri Petrinya, Director of the Energy Institute of Peter Great Saint Petersburg Polytechnic University, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, spoke about the features of green energy abroad and in Russia, which, as usual, should have its own way. In Europe, Denmark has the largest share of green energy. In second place comes Germany. They are arranged in the same order in terms of energy tariffs. Over the 20-year history of industry development, there has been a strong decrease in prices, but it is still very far from reaching acceptable values, – it is considered a corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. – In Russia, the total installed capacity is 270-290 gigawatts. Of these, about 20% is green hydropower. About 10% – conditional green nuclear energy. And nearly 200 gigawatts of energy is absolutely not green thermal energy. If we go head to head, implement decarbonization, and follow the green agenda, it will require the state to spend hundreds of billions of dollars in expenditures with a poorly understood mechanism of reinvestment. It is clear that it is necessary to develop and implement a conceptual plan for the renewal and modernization of the Russian energy sector. ”

Professor of Risk Management and Insurance, and lead researcher in the Center for Sustainable Development and ESG Transformation at MGIMO Igor Yurgens asserts that the energy transition will mean something more than a simple replacement of non-renewable energy sources with renewable ones and will be nothing less than a change in the social composition. He said at the conference: “Energy modernization entails the modernization of society as a whole. If the First Industrial Revolution ended feudalism and ushered in the capitalist era, the Fourth Green Revolution would end capitalism as it exists today. Capitalism, guided by the interests of shareholders, and bringing maximum profits to them, must transform, To the capitalism of stakeholders, all those who produce goods and services. It is the capitalism of the trade unions representing workers, the capitalism of environmentalists, the capitalism of women’s organizations, but not the contributors. Therefore, we are fortunate at the moment, especially young scientists, to be present in the transition from One social formation to another, which I hope will be more equitable.

Ivan Eremin, Deputy Chairman of the Public Council of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of the Russian Federation, owner of JSC Business News Media, is sure that society needs educational assistance, and Russian citizens should understand what carbon regulation is, and how it will affect their daily lives. “Today, society is a lagging participant in resolving issues on the climate agenda. Not because it is somewhat underdeveloped. On the one hand, it has more pressing problems, and on the other hand, it lacks information about what is happening. It can already be expected that the introduction of transboundary carbon regulation It will in one way or another affect the daily life of most Russian citizens. Carbon “tariffs” will affect all the main elements of our exports, which means, in one way or another, the entire Russian business world and all citizens of our country. He said in his speech at the conference in Sochi that they now need to clarify The reason for the high prices of food, electricity and utilities.

Andrei Fursenko drew a line under the offers. “Environmental, social and institutional governance is not only about energy, carbon and climate. These are also issues of hunger, health care and migration flows. This is the problem of the social arrangement of our society. Once we begin to sacrifice the second letter of this acronym (S – social, social) for the first (E – social). ecological, eco), we will get a huge tension. Europe did not even begin to freeze, only chances appeared that this was possible, and in Germany a coal plant was already launched as soon as there was a danger that life would not be as comfortable as the one that everyone is accustomed to. What can we say About the migrants that climate change will start surviving from their lands? I think it’s good that we started working. Although what is being done now is a zero cycle. We need to create some rules in order to have a tool that allows us to assess the situation. Phase Next is to begin to develop social and economic solutions built on it, to move and not to worry.Today, without counting the consequences, but starting to seize what is at hand, we can at best not cause any harm, at worst create an additional problem, which will not We have complete information about it until the turbidity subsides.

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