The All-Russian Student Scientific and Practical Conference “Actual problems of the legal regulation of environmental protection and rational management of nature” was held for the first time at Saint Petersburg University. It was attended by representatives of Saint Petersburg State University, Saint Petersburg Law Institute (branch) of the University of the Prosecutor’s Office of the Russian Federation, Siberian Federal University, Tomsk State University, Moscow State Law Academy named after O.E. Kotavin, North. Eastern Federal University bears the name of MK Ammosov, SGLA, Udmurt State University and other top law schools of the country.
During the conference, teachers and students gave presentations on waste management, the development of legislation in the field of environmental protection of citizens’ rights, public access to land for public needs, rational use of natural resources.
One of the mechanisms of environmental protection and nature management is the development of green energy, and the use of renewable energy sources.
For example, the sun, wind or water. These sources are good because they are not exhausted, and they can be used without restrictions. Despite the fact that the volume of use of this energy is increasing every year, the world’s consumption of electricity is also increasing. Increasing the volumes of the oil and gas sectors. This practically negates the positive effect of green energy.
In Russia, the share of renewable sources in the total energy system is no more than 1%. For comparison, in Denmark, 40% of the total energy is produced only by wind turbines. The problem lies in the lack of investment in this sector of the economy, and the lack of interest in developing the field, since alternative energy, compared to the usual energy, is expensive and the demand for it is still low. The researchers also noted the lack of a well-developed legal framework that could regulate the use of green energy. Participants noted that, according to forecasts, even by 2050 the international community will not be able to achieve a situation in which half of all energy is produced using alternative sources.
Another challenge is to reduce the carbon footprint affecting global climate change.
An increase in temperature is associated with an increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Today, China is the world leader in emissions of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Despite the fact that the country is actively using alternative energy sources, it is still the largest consumer of coal in the world. True, by 2060, China, according to its leader, plans to become carbon neutral, that is, it will reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and its like to zero in the production process.
The Russian Federation also proposed conducting an experiment on forming a system for calculating and removing greenhouse gas emissions and introducing a quota system. This means that economic entities will be required to comply with the quota submitted to them in order to exceed the permissible volumes of carbon dioxide emissions. Such measures are being taken around the world, with European Union countries saying they plan to become carbon neutral by 2050.
Among the issues raised by young scientists at the conference was environmental marketing – the promotion of goods and services that cause minimal harm to the environment. These products are usually labeled with the words “Bio”, “Eco”, “Organic” and other similar products, which emphasizes their environmental properties. Fragmentation of legal regulations and a lack of incentives for voluntary environmental certification was noted. If a manufacturer fraudulently passes on its product as being environmentally friendly, the legislation provides for it to be held liable under articles on consumer protection or unfair competition. At the same time, a product that has proven its environmentally friendly properties receives the “Leaf of Life” label.