By 2024, 4.5% of Russia’s energy should be green. At what stage are we?

What types of renewable energy are available in Russia?

  • Solar energy

This type of energy converts solar electromagnetic radiation into electrical or thermal energy. Globally, there are two possibilities for obtaining this energy.

The first is photovoltaic cells, photovoltaic solar energy. They are solar panels that work on the phenomenon of the internal photovoltaic effect.

The second is the so-called Concentrated Solar Thermal Systems, CSP. In this case, the sun’s energy is used indirectly, usually to convert water into steam, and then convert the kinetic energy of the steam into electricity.

Among all sectors of the RES (renewable energy sources), solar energy is the most developed in Russia. This is due to the fact that the state has at least two suppliers of equipment with their own developments. With competition and the development of the industry as a whole, the cost of solar power generation has fallen dramatically over the past few years, and around the world.

In terms of installed capacity, this method of power generation takes only 1-2%, and in terms of power generation, it tends to zero due to technical interruptions.

  • wind force

Wind power has been the main source of new capacity in Europe, the United States, and Canada for the past decade, and the second largest in China. In Denmark, wind generation meets 47% of electricity demand, in Ireland – more than 30%, and in Portugal and Spain – more than 20%.

Despite the huge potential, wind energy in Russia is less developed than in progressive countries. About 30% of the economic potential of wind energy is concentrated in the Far East.

Currently, wind energy is used mainly in sparsely populated rural areas, where access to primary energy sources is limited. As of January 1, 2018, the total capacity of wind farms in the country was 134.36 MW, or only 0.06% of the installed capacity of power plants in the power system.

  • hydropower

Power plants use this potential energy to flow water. Hydroelectric power stations are usually built on rivers by constructing dams and reservoirs. It is also possible to use the kinetic energy of the water flow – in the so-called dam-free and free-flowing hydroelectric power stations.

About 9% of the world’s hydropower reserves are concentrated in Russia – according to this indicator, the country ranks second in the world after China. At the same time, the distribution of economically viable water resources across Russia is uneven: about 80% in Siberia and the Far East, 20% in European regions of the country, the commission explained.

Vyacheslav Skolkin, Deputy Director of the Hydropower Department of Russia, said that there are no large promising hydropower projects in Russia due to the large spare capacity of the power system, which makes the possible construction and operation of new large hydropower plants economically unjustified. Development of the electric power industry of the Ministry of Energy of the Russian Federation.

The economic potential of Russia’s hydropower resources amounts to 852 TWh and only 20% of it is used. HPPs are a “clean” energy source with a service life of 100 years or more and have the lowest environmental impact.

Source: Irina

Why is green energy becoming popular?

  • Preserving the environment. A full transition to renewable energy would reduce environmental pollution and improve public health. This, in turn, can reduce premature deaths from contamination and reduce medical costs.
  • Energy security. The use of renewable energy sources significantly reduces countries’ dependence on energy imports. Importers of fossil fuels – mainly Europe, and now also Asia – are striving to reduce their heavy dependence on energy imports and develop renewable energy at home.
  • growth in efficiency. With the development of technology, the efficiency of green power generation increases, and the cost decreases. Due to the high availability of solar and wind energy, this makes the industry increasingly attractive for commercial use.
  • New workplaces. Renewable energy in 2017-2019 was more efficient at creating American jobs than coal or oil. Around the world, about 11 million people work in the renewable energy sector.

Who cares about renewable energy in Russia?

  • global energy companies. As green energy becomes the energy of the future, the big players in the market will eagerly listen to the new trends.
  • Large industrial export companies. For them, the use of renewable energy will help avoid additional costs in the event of a European carbon tax.
  • Small and medium-sized companies. In this segment, the most common are, for example, solar batteries worth up to 1 million rubles.
  • singly. After the entry into force of the amendments to the Law “On the Electricity Industry”, they are entitled to sell surplus electricity to the network generated by their micro-generation facilities, up to 15 kilowatts.

To what extent has green energy been developed in Russia?

The main players in the wind energy industry in Russia, according to experts, are the state corporation Rosatom (a subsidiary of NovaWind), Enel Russia, Fortum and the Wind Energy Development Fund, a joint venture of Fortum and Rosnano.

In the field of solar energy, leadership positions are held by the Hevel subsidiary, Avelar Solar Technology, Solar Systems and T Plus. It is now planned to merge the assets of Hevel and T Plus, and as a result, the projects that were built, under construction and won with a total capacity of 1.5 gigawatts can be included in the joint venture of these companies, says Alexei Khokhlov.

The Russian authorities began to become interested in alternative energy at the end of the last decade, when in 2009 a relevant government decree was adopted that defines the main directions of state policy in the use of renewable energy until 2024. According to this document, within four years, the share of alternative sources should be In the total energy system of the Russian Federation 4.5%. Under this program, 5.5 gigawatts of capacity will be built by 2024.

However, Alexei Khokhlov explained that in 2019, the share of wind and solar electricity in the UES balance of Russia, according to the operator of the Unified Energy System system, was only 0.15%.

The Department of Energy expects, when expanding the scope of the renewable energy program in the wholesale market, taking into account cost reduction, “to reach by 2036 the point of equality between the weighted average price of conventional generation and the weighted average price of renewable energy facilities.”

However, now, according to the expert, it is economically feasible to build projects for the construction of solar power plants and wind farms along with storage tanks, modern highly automated diesel engines, small hydroelectric and geothermal power plants.

whats the result?

It is assumed that in the period from 2025 to 2035, about 400 billion rubles will be invested in renewable energy, and deeper localization of production and construction of at least another 7 gigawatts of capacity will be ensured. This, as representatives of the “green” industry believe, is the impetus that will allow it to become competitive in world markets.

In 2009, a relevant government decree was adopted, which defines the main directions of state policy in the field of renewable energy use until 2024. According to this document, within four years, the share of alternative sources in the total energy system of the Russian Federation should be 4.5%. In 2013, the rules for determining the price of generating capacity on the basis of RES in the wholesale market were approved, which allowed its full inclusion in the mechanism of capacity supply agreements (CDA). Under this program, 5.5 GW of capacities will be built by 2024.

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